The Legacy of Malcolm X – Life in His Eyes: Violence, Race and Movements (by Bryan Phan)

The Legacy of Malcolm X – Life in His Eyes: Violence, Race and Movements

Interpreting and Understanding Malcolm XHis life, His views on Violence and Race in an American Democracy and His influence on the Black Civil Rights Movement.

Overview: I want students to recognize that before Malcolm X was a national icon or villain, he was a local, national and international political activist, a community organizer, and an architect of movements. Malcolm’s message was composed of more than just awe-inspiring speeches, angry tirades or his remarkable rags to righteous story told in The Autobiography by Alex Haley. Malcolm sought more than anything else to prove and display the American paradox: a democracy with unequal citizens. Malcolm was not a racist, preacher of hate or instigator of violence but a civil rights frontrunner and revolutionary who used his thoughts and words to emphasize the necessity for having self-respect for one’s race and heritage.

Framework: The lesson will ask students to learn about and observe the social and political context in which Malcolm X lived, operated and died in, how he challenged the concepts of equality and race relations in the United States and understand how those two factors ultimately led him to help form black nationalist and racial pride movements. By the end of the lesson, students should be able to answer the four questions listed below. (Day/Section One) They will move towards this understanding by first entirely reading Malcolm X’s Message to the Grassroots Speech.  This section is intended to inform students of Malcolm’s ideas on violence and militant action (pertaining to question one). After all the students are finished reading, they should engage in discussion (questions for discussion and activity one in activities section) about their analysis, views and opinions on Malcolm’s speech. Remember to ask them if they believe that his views on violence and race are radical, rational or both. Ask them to mention the specific parts or views that are radical or rational (write them down and take notes of certain comments that are made). Because Martin Luther King will most likely be brought up make sure that the classroom discussion is focused mostly on Malcolm and his ideology. (Day/Section Two) The Cone reading is assigned to provide students with a better background on Malcolm X’s childhood and how it may have affected his views on race and equality in the United States (pertaining to question two). The Cone section of the lesson plan is very important because it serves as way for students to have an “Aha” moment and understand how Malcolm’s views on Black Nationalism or violence came to develop and why they may not be as radical or extremist. During this process, students should come to observe what Malcolm termed as the “American Paradox”: a democracy with unequal citizens. With the assistance of the video and the Cone reading, students will discuss various terms (questions for discussion and activity two located in activities section) and apply them to Malcolm X’s childhood, views on race in the United States and ideas on militant/revolutionary movements. From this activity, students will observe how Malcolm changed people’s interpretations of Civil Rights in the United States by affecting their interpretations and existing definitions on terms such as equality, democracy, citizenship and civil rights (pertaining to question three). Students may come to see how the American Dream was Malcolm’s American Nightmare (Day/Section Three) Create a timeline and ask the class on how Malcolm based on the videos and Autobiography might have viewed or influenced specific events on it. This serves to help students understand Malcolm’s legacy and lasting impact on the Civil Rights Movement (pertaining to question four).  Students will construct a table or list of all of Malcolm’s views (for example violence, pride in race) and rank them (in order of least important to most important) in terms of their  significant to him. The point of this activity is to have students actively see through Malcolm’s eyes. At this point, they understand the main points of the lesson plan (Malcolm’s views and impact on race, and movements) and are able to use those skills to analyze other forms of information. They have the context and analysis and are now able to use those tools and apply them to form their own thoughts and views on race, equality or violence.

The lesson will provide students with the skills and understandings to understand and recognize Malcolm X’s lasting impact on the Civil Rights Movements. They will also be able to understand his stance on violence and militant action in rousing change in American government and legislation. Students will be provided the knowledge and analytical skills to be able to understand how Malcolm came to develop his views on race in America. Because they have information on his childhood, students may come to observe the various influences such as the death of his father or the well-known teacher incident that led Malcolm to becoming a proponent of Black Nationalism and militant action in the United States. Students will also be able to understand the methods and approaches Malcolm used in his rhetoric and thoughts to challenge the ideas of equality and democracy. The practices we do in section two are meant to inspire students to recognize the various hypocrisies and paradoxes found in American democracy. In this sense, students may begin to see the validity to Malcolm’s argument and outlook on racial relations in the United States as rational and not radical. Students will be able to observe Malcolm’s legacy, and final views on the Civil Rights Movement and use that knowledge to construct their own ideas on race, equality and violence. Ultimately, from this three-day lesson plan students should possess the analytical skills and bundle of knowledge to form comprehensive ideas on Malcolm X’s life, his views on violence and race in a racially prejudiced America and his influence on the Black Civil Rights Movement.

Essential Understanding: The overlying themes I want students to discover from my lesson is (1) how he believed that unconditional non-violence could not be a practical method because of his distrust for American democracy and legislation (Questions One, and Two) and (2) how, due to Malcolm’s suspicions on American government, and his classifications of equality, citizenship and democracy for Blacks, his lasting legacy was that he produced a militant side to Civil Right Movements that “included a critical engagement with democracy” – either changing the “American system” by achieving self determination through physical or violent aggression or influencing the American political system through votes (Questions Three and Four).

Essential Questions:

(1) How did Malcolm X describe his stance on unconditional non-violence?
(2) How did he come to form his views on race?
(3) How did he challenge the ideas of equality and democracy in the United States?
(4) What are his legacy and final views on the Civil Rights Movement

Glossary (Sixteen Terms) – As Defined by the Merriam Webster Dictionary

(1) Democracy – a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections.
(2) Human Rights – rights (as freedom from unlawful imprisonment, torture, and execution) regarded as belonging fundamentally to all persons.
(3) Citizen – an inhabitant of a city or town; especially: one entitled to the rights and privileges of a freeman.
(4) Paradox – a tenet contrary to received opinion.
(5) Equality – like for each member of a group, class, or society.
(6) Nationalism – loyalty and devotion to a nation; especially: a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations or supranational groups
(7) Racism – a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race
(8) Institutions – a significant practice, relationship, or organization in a society or culture
(9) Militant – aggressively active (as in a cause): combative
(10) Oppression – unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power
(11) Hate – intense hostility and aversion usually deriving from fear, anger, or sense of injury
(12) Justice – the maintenance or administration of what is just especially by the impartial adjustment of conflicting claims or the assignment of merited rewards or punishments.
(13) Freedom – the absence of necessity, coercion, or constraint in choice or action
(14) Hypocrisy – a feigning to be what one is not or to believe what one does not; especially: the false assumption of an appearance of virtue or religion
(15) Prejudice – injury or damage resulting from some judgment or action of another in disregard of one’s rights; especially: detriment to one’s legal rights or claims
(16) Revolution – a sudden, radical, or complete change.

Introduction: When you examine Malcolm X’s life, it is essential to recognize the historical context in which he lived. I will provide you with the resources to understand Malcolm’s childhood, his views on racial relations and his ideas on violence and militant action. You will use these resources as tools in activities to help discover your own interpretation of Malcolm’s ideology. Putting your feet into his shoes can help in terms of helping you understand why Malcolm was so adamant in his push for change in legislation and Black Nationalism. You will come to see after this learning process how fast “radical” begins to sound like “rational”. Is Malcolm a radical or realist for advocating for Black separation and revolution in a country that ignored, neglected and abused people on the basis of their skin.

What Malcolm wanted to make evident was that passivity and cooperation would only lead to more unrepresentative and ineffective government because it put their rights in to the hands of the white man – hands that for the past centuries that had not only taken away their freedom but also their lives, racial pride and basic human rights. He could not support non-violence because it left black people vulnerable and defenseless to “suffer peacefully” at the hands of the malicious white man. If the government that controlled legislation continued to not award them their rights, Blacks had to put things in their own hands and start a revolution (violent, if necessary) for their own sovereignty, and land.

Malcolm experienced how Blacks in American society were mistreated and neglected. In just his childhood, the Ku Klux Klan burned down his house, his father died under mysterious circumstances, his mother was sent to an insane asylum, and he was separated from his family. The final breaking point of Malcolm trying to associate with white society came when his white teacher in full sincerity advised him to not be a lawyer and suggested carpentry as “a more realistic goal for a nigger.” This moment “represented the end of [Malcolm’s] attempt to become integrated into white society” because Malcolm “concluded that no matter what he did he would never be fully accepted by whites and given the same opportunities as they.” Through his experiences confronting blackness, Malcolm came to see how, because of the reluctance of individual’s mentalities and racist institutions in America to change, Blacks would always be treated and perceived as second-rate human beings.

Malcolm redefined the tenor and geographical terrain of Black politics.” He pointed out the various hypocrisies that were evident in the presentation of civil rights, democracy and American politics. By redefining American governance as a system that was a bigger and better form of segregation and harmful towards the rights of blacks, Malcolm influenced blacks towards more effective methods of changing laws – radical self-determination, and self-defense. In the Ballot or the Bullet, Malcolm mentions the importance of the twenty million blacks uniting together as a major bloc to vote for representatives or legislation in order to prevent mass violence or revolt from occurring in the near future. Malcolm X changed people’s interpretations of Civil Rights by affecting their interpretations and existing definitions on democracy, citizenship and civil rights. He not only changed how they thought about the American system but also how they could pursue more effective means of achieving equal rights – their ballot and if that failed, their bullets.

What Malcolm wanted most for all Americans was for them to recognize the racist institutions and philosophies embedded in America and for people of the same race to actively unite and work together in order to develop a sense of racial pride through fighting for their basic human rights. Malcolm’s legacy and impact was his influence on the methodology and perception of civil rights, equality and democracy. By pointing out the hypocrisies in racist American society, Malcolm was able to alter the scope of the black civil rights movement by encouraged militant methods that urgently and “critically engaged democracy” instead of nonviolently patiently waiting on it. Malcolm had two solutions for fixing the “American nightmare”: (1) achieving self-determination through violent revolution or (2) working together with willing whites to change the racist American mindsets, institutions, and legislation in order to provide blacks with all of their human rights and dignity.

Materials:

A. ) Message to the Grassroots Speech by Malcolm X:
Find Here
B. ) Martin and Malcolm: A Dream or A Nightmare by James Cone (Chapter 2 – Pg. 38-57)
Find Here
C.) The Autobiography of Malcolm X by Alex Haley (Chapter 9 – 1965: Pg. 491-501)
Find Here
D.) YouTube Video One: Malcolm X: The Field Negro and the House Negro
Find Here
E.) YouTube Video Two: Malcolm X explains Black Nationalism
Find Here
F.) YouTube Video Three: If Someone Puts a Dog on You, Kill that Dog
Find Here
G.) YouTube Video Four: Our History was Destroyed By Slavery
Find Here

Activities:

A.) Activity One – An Introduction to Militant Action: Analyzing the Message to the Grassroots

1. When students first enter class, hand out Malcolm X’s Message to the Grassroots Speech and give them  fifteen to twenty minutes to thoroughly and completely read the text.

2. When all students are finished reading, play two-minute long YouTube Video One (Malcolm X: The Field Negro and the House Negro.)

3. Break the classroom into groups of three or four students and hand out the following questions (listed below) for them to actively think and discuss about for ten to twelve minutes.

4. Assign each group with three to four specific questions (for example a-d or e-g) to closely examine and thoughtfully answer.

5. Remind them to list specific examples in the text that support their answers and to focus on examples that regard Malcolm’s views on violence, and militant action (or revolution) as they will be presenting in front of the entire class in the near future.

6. Because some questions or parts of the text may be more analytical or in-depth than others remind students to ask questions regarding what their question or certain parts of the text.

a. What are Malcolm X’s main points in his Message to the Grassroots Speech?
b. What does he say about how Blacks are viewed or treated in America?
c. Who does he believe is the common enemy for Blacks? Why does he hold this view?
d. What does Malcolm believe is the primary difference between the Black revolution and the Negro Revolution? Does he think people use the word “revolution” loosely?
e. Why does Malcolm believe that America’s views on violence are hypocritical?
f. How does Malcolm assert that revolutions must be “bloody”? What examples does he use and how does he compare them to the situation of Blacks in America?
g. What is a “Field Negro”? What is a “House Negro”? By defining these terms who does it appear that Malcolm is condemning? Why does he make this comparison?
h. Does Malcolm believe in “suffering peacefully”? Why or why not?
i. In Malcolm’s perspective, how did Malcolm alter the March on Washington?
j. Why does Malcolm criticize President Kennedy? Does he believe that President Kennedy’s actions and thoughts on Black Civil Rights are genuine?
k. How does Malcolm compare the March on Washington to a strong cup of coffee?
l. Why did Malcolm find it suspicious that James Baldwin was not allowed to speak?

7. After students are finished answering questions, call on each group one at a time and have them talk about their answers for two to three minutes each. Collectively, this part of the activity should take no more than fifteen minutes. If time is an issue, try to stress on the question that regard Malcolm X’s views on non-violence, race and militant action (a, d, e, f, g, h, i, k)

8. Open up the remainder of class for final thoughts and discussion on the student’s views on Malcolm X’s words and ideas on violence and militant action. Questions (examples listed below) can be broad or specific but must ultimately address Malcolm X’s ideologies on movements and collective action. It is important to ask students about their true opinions on Malcolm’s words.

a. Are the things that Malcolm X advocates such as revolution radical or rational? Why?
b. Do you agree with Malcolm X’s view on how Blacks were perceived in America?
c. In comparison to Malcolm X, how would you address racism and racial violence?
d. Do you agree with Malcolm X’s stance on violence? Why or why not?

9. As class is coming to an end, assign students the James Cone reading for homework. Students are expected to have at least one-two pages of notes on the reading.

10. Tell students to start thinking about how Malcolm X formed his views and ideas on violence and militant action based on his own experiences and encounters with American Democracy.

B.) Activity Two – Enter Malcolm X: Finding an American Nightmare in the American Dream

1. Start the class by playing the four minute YouTube Video Two: Malcolm X Explains Black Nationalism. Students should connect this to the Cone Reading they did the previous night.

2. When the video is playing, hand to students a list of sixteen terms located in the glossary.

3. With the assistance of the video and the Cone reading, through discussion (example questions listed below) have students discuss the list of sixteen terms and apply them to Malcolm X’s childhood, views on race in the United States and ideas on militant/revolutionary movements.

4. In order for students to comprehensively understand the dynamic of the activity, split the class into groups of three or four people. Have the student groups closely analyze and examine three to four terms provided in the glossary for fifteen to twenty minutes. They should be thinking about whether or not definitions provided for various terms in the glossary would match Malcolm’s view or perception of them based on their readings and videos. For each selected group of terms there should be a set of four to five questions to reach this understanding. For example, does the definition of democracy provided in the glossary match or differ from Malcolm’s view or observation of American democracy. In other words, were Blacks living in “a government in which the supreme power [was] vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections?”

5. Remind them to list specific examples in the text that support their answers and to focus on examples that regard Malcolm’s childhood, views on violence, race and militant action as they will be presenting in front of the entire class in the near future. Ultimately, this activity serves as a way for students to understand the reasons why Malcolm came to form his ideas on violence, militant and nationalistic movements and why they may not entirely be as radical or extremist. For some students, radical may become rational.

6. Here is a list of example questions that might be used for each respective term

a. In Malcolm eyes, did Blacks in the United States live in a “democracy”? Why or why not?
b. Does the definition of human rights meet the rights provided to Blacks in America?
c. During Malcolm X’s era, were Blacks provided the same rights as all citizens?
d. What is one example of a paradox that Malcolm found in racist American society?
e. How does the definition of equality apply to Blacks in America? How does it not?
f. According to the definition, how would Nationalism help Blacks gain pride in their race?
g. Does the definition of racism match Malcolm’s view on racial relations in the United States?
h. According to the definition, what would be constituted as an institution of racism?
i. According to the definition, how might Malcolm’s movement be considered militant?
j. Would the way that Blacks were treated in America be considered a form of oppression?
k. How does Malcolm use the word hate to inspire militant and violent movements?
l. How might Malcolm’s life and the shortage of black rights affect his views on justice?
m. According to the definition, how might Blacks in America not be given freedom?
n. How might American Democracy be hypocritical? What is undemocratic about America?
o. What forms of prejudice were present in Malcolm’s childhood? In his life?
p. In what ways was Malcolm’s ideas on a revolution different from the definition?
q. Do you believe Malcolm’s views on race, violence and movements may have been different if he lived a normal happy childhood that was less traumatic?

7. After students are finished answering their questions, have them present their ideas or arguments for four to five minutes each. Collectively, this part of the activity should take no more than twenty minutes. If time becomes an issue make sure that students address the key terms that apply most to Malcolm X’s ideas on race and the Cone reading based on his childhood (democracy, citizen, equality, justice, freedom, hypocrisy, prejudice). Students should be able to understand and observe the paradoxes and hypocrisies found in Malcolm X’s views of race, equality and democracy in America and how those views ultimately led him to believe in more militant and nationalistic movements. Students will observe how Malcolm changed people’s interpretations of Civil Rights in the United States by affecting their interpretations and existing definitions on terms such as equality, democracy, citizenship and civil rights.

8. For the remainder of the period, open up the entire class for discussion on the Cone reading. Ask students questions about how they might think that Malcolm’s childhood influenced his thoughts on race, violence and militant action in the Civil Rights movement. With this understanding, ask students how their views on Malcolm and his ideas have changed. Is his reasoning justified? Is Malcolm outlook on movements radical or rational? Ultimately we want to orient students towards the third day activity in understanding Malcolm’s impact, views and legacy on the Civil Rights Movements of the past, present and future.

9. As the class comes to an end, assign students to read chapter nine of the Autobiography. Students are expected to have at least one-two pages of notes on the reading.

10. For the upcoming classroom activities tell students to start thinking about Malcolm’s impact, legacy and final views on Civil Rights Movement, and racial relations in the United States.

C.) Activity Three – Malcolm’s Legacy: How Malcolm’s Vision and Voice Still Impacts us Today

1. Before class starts, construct a timeline of important Civil Rights events that happened during and after Malcolm X’s life. (The events listed below should be on the timeline. Feel free to add your own current events or dates regarding race or racial movements)

a. 1931 – Malcolm’s father, Earl Little, is run over by a streetcar and is killed.
b. 1939 – Malcolm’s mother, Louise Little, is committed to the State Mental Hospital in Kalamazoo, consequently placing Malcolm in a juvenile home.
c. 1952 – Malcolm is released from prison after six years (instead of eight to ten) and meets Elijah Muhammad in Chicago. It is here that he receives the legendary ‘X’ from the Nation of Islam.
d. 1954 – The Supreme Court Rules on the Case Brown v. Board of Education
e. 1955- Fourteen-year old Emmett Till is brutally murdered for sweet-talking a white girl in Mississippi
f. 1955 – Rosa Park refuses to give up her seat starting the Montgomery Bus Boycott
g. 1957- “Little Rock Nine” integrate into an all-white Arkansas high school
h. 1962- James Meredith becomes the first black to enroll at the University of Mississippi
i. 1963 – Martin Luther King’s “I have a Dream” and March on Washington occurs
j. 1963 – Four young girls are killed in Montgomery Alabama while attending Sunday school
k. 1964 – Civil Right Act of 1964 is signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson
l. 1964 – The bodies of three Civil Rights Workers James E. Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner are found in Mississippi.
m. 1965 – Malcolm X is shot dead in the Audubon Ballroom while giving a speech.
n. 1965 – The Watts Riots in Los Angeles which resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage begins
o. 1966 – The Black Panthers are founded
p. 1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. is shot dead in a Memphis hotel
q. 1968 – The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is signed by Lyndon B. Johnson
r. 1992 – The Los Angeles Riots begin after police officer are seen on video recording brutally beating Rodney King.
s. 2010 – SB 1070 a bill that allows state law enforcement to stop, detain or arrest a person when there is “reasonable suspicion” that they are an illegal immigrant is signed into law by governor Jan Brewer
t. 2012 – Trayvon Martin, an unarmed black teenager is shot dead

2. At the beginning of class, have students watch YouTube videos three (five minutes) and four (ten minutes). Because these videos are longer have them take at least one page of notes for discussion later on in the class.

3. Have the class look at your timeline for one to two minutes. Remind them to ask any questions on certain events or organizations (for example, the Black Panthers or the LA Riots) that are not covered in their material. This part should take no more than five minutes.

4. When the class is confident with the timeline ask them on how Malcolm based on the videos and Autobiography might have viewed or influenced these specific events. Ask them to list specific examples from their readings or their notes.

5. Examine each specific part on the timeline and make sure to spend time analyzing and applying Malcolm’s views on current events (for example, the Trayvon Martin case or SB 1070.) This serves to help students understand Malcolm’s legacy and lasting impact on the Civil Rights Movement. It might also help students to understand how racial issues are still present today. This part of the discussion should be no longer than ten to fifteen minutes. It is important for students to focus on ideas regarding Malcolm’s thoughts on non-violence, race and the Civil Rights Movement.

6. When the timeline discussion is concluded put students in groups of three or four.

7. Have all groups construct a table or list of all of Malcolm’s views (for example violence, racial pride, militant action) and have them rank (in order of least important to most important) what they thought were most significant to him. Remind them to have specific examples and evidence for their reasoning and choices. Give them five to ten minutes to complete this task.

8. When all the groups are finished with their list have them write them down on a white board.

9. For two to four minutes each have one group at a time describe how they chose their list of Malcolm’s ideas (with textual or video evidence and support) and the reasoning to how they ranked them. At this point, although they may not know it, students are seeing violence, race and movements through Malcolm X’s eyes. They have the textual and analytical evidence to perceive and understand Malcolm’s views on topics such as violence, democracy, militant action and race and how they have influenced how people think of race and racial movements.

10. Read a statement to students on the process of their learning experience (such as the introduction) that highlights Malcolm’s views on violence, race, and militant action and how they ultimately affected the Civil Rights Movement. At this point, students are able to understand and connect the material and activities together. You will tell them about the progression of the three day lesson and they will be able to observe how they have grown in terms of developing certain views and understandings on Malcolm X. Hopefully, if the lesson is conducted or formatted properly, you will begin to see students nodding along as you read your statement because they are feeling the sense of satisfaction in having gained knowledge to think deeply in terms of a subject or topic that they may have known very little or nothing about.

11. If you feel confident with the students understanding of the learning process and activities open the class up to discussion for the remainder of the class period by asking the students which of Malcolm’s views did they most associate with, learned from or enjoyed and how that view impacts their present views on race, equality or violence. They have learned about and analyzed Malcolm’s views and ideas on race, violence, and movements and now are able to apply those skills and understandings in historical analysis and issues or thoughts in their own daily lives.

Additional Citations:

A.) Dark Days, Bright Nights by Peniel Joseph – Chapter Two: Malcolm X, Harlem and American Democracy
B.) A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable
C.) The Ballot or the Bullet Speech by Malcolm X:

Standards:

1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.

– Activities that analyzed, applied and helped understand Malcolm X’s Autobiography by Alex Haley, Message to the Grassroots and Martin and Malcom: An American Dream or Nightmare by James Cone.

2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.

– Had students discuss certain points regarding Malcolm X’s Message to the Grassroots

3. Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.

– Used YouTube videos to help understand Malcolm X on a more personal and visible level

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text.

– Had an activity that assessed terms and applied them to ideas and analysis learned in the lesson.

5. Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence.

– Assigned pieces from three author perspectives: Malcolm’s, Haley’s and Cone’s

6. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

– Applied YouTube videos to literally and figuratively have students hear Malcolm’s voice (a feat that no text can do).

7. Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.

– Usage of the timeline in an activity to connect Malcolm ideas with past/current events and put them in historical context.

8. Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.

-Usage of three sources and videos to have a comprehensive understanding on Malcolm’s views and influence on race and movements.

9. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

– James Cone reading and The Autobiography are college level reading.

10. Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.

– Students observe in Cone’s analysis on how Malcolm’s childhood affected his views on race, equality/democracy and the Civil Rights Movement.

11. Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.

– Towards the end of lesson students observe how Malcolm has impacted the Black Civil Rights movements, and people’s interpretation of race, equality and movements.

12. Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations.

– Briefly understanding and analyzing Malcolm’s views in comparison to Martin Luther King’s

13.  Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations

– Students academically observe Malcolm’s influence on movements or history beyond the common misperception that he was “an angry black man” or instigator of violence.

14. Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations. 

– Students must think together in a group setting and present their ideas in front of the clas.

15. Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.

– Students are asked to discuss and analyze how Malcolm’s view have affected movements

16. Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values.

– Students are asked to think in historical context when they apply Malcolm’s views to present day definition on terms such as democracy, equality and freedom

17. Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.

– Students observe how Malcolm’s views may have been different if he had lived a different childhood

18. Examine and analyze the key events, policies, and court cases in the evolution of civil rights

– Timeline applies Malcolm’s views to key events and court rulings in and after his lifetime

19. Examine the roles of civil rights advocates

– Deeply analyzed the life, views and vision of Malcolm X and how it impacted the Black Civil Rights Movement.

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